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The Gerund ( English Grammar Notes In Hindi )

The Gerund English Grammar Notes

GERUND

A gerund is a verbal form ending in ' - ing ' when used as a noun in all singular case . It is a word which ends in ing ' and does the work of both a verb and a noun .

जो Verb कार्य को प्रकट करने के साथ - साथ Noun का भी काम करे Gerund कहलाती है । इसको Verbal Noun भी कह सकते हैं । Verb की First Form अपने साथ ing लेने के बाद Gerund बन जाती है । किसी action को दर्शाने के लिए Gerund का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।

जैसे -
( a ) Walking is useful for health .
( b ) It is no use crying over the spilt .

Gerund , वाक्य के beginning , middle या end में कहीं भी आ सकती है । Gerund , 'double part of speech ' भी कहलाती है क्योंकि यह verb से बनती है और noun का कार्य करती है ।

USES OF GERUNDS

1 .

A . Subject के रूप में

जैसे -
( a ) Gambling is a vice .
( b ) Reading is a good hobby .
( c ) Smoking is a bad habit .
( d ) Hunting the wild animals is illegal .

B . Object के रूप में

जैसे -
( a ) He hates smoking .
( b ) Stop writing now .
( c ) I hate telling lies .
( d ) Children love making mud castles .

C . Complement के रूप में

जैसे -
( a ) Seeing is believing .
( b ) Doing is learning .
( c ) What I hate is drinking .
( d ) Her favourite hobby is dancing .

D . Preposition के Object के रूप में

जैसे -
( a ) She is fond of dancing .
( b ) They spent the afternoon in playing cards .
( c ) I am tired of waiting .
( d ) I was punished for telling a lie .

2 . कुछ Verbs के साथ Gerund और to - infinitives में से किसी का भी Object के रूप में प्रयोग किया जा सकता है । ये Verbs हैं - Advise , allow , begin , continue , feel , hate , intend , leam , like , love , prefer , propose , remember , start etc . Advise , allow , encourage , forbid , permit , recommend आदि Verbs के साथ दो प्रकार की structure संभव है ।

( i ) Verb + ing ( without any object )

जैसे -
( a ) I would not recommend staying in that hotel .
( b ) Ido not allow smoking in the hotel .
( c ) She advised leaving at once .
( d ) He recommended buying this table .

( ii ) Verb + object + to __

जैसे -
( a ) I would not recommend anybody to stay in that hotel .
( b ) Ido not allow you to smoke in the hotel .
( c ) She advised me to leave at once .
( d ) He recommended to buy this table .

3 . इन Verbs के साथ हमेशा Object के रूप में Gerund का ही प्रयोग होता है , infinitives का नहीं । Admit , anticipate , avoid , complete , consider , continue , defer , delay , deny , detest , dislike , dread , enjoy , excuse , fancy , favour , fell , finish , forgive , imagine , involve , keep , mind , miss , pardon , postpone , practise , prevent , recollect , resent , risk , save , stop , suggest , try

जैसे -
( a ) He enjoys basking in the sun .
( b ) Why do you keep bothering ?

4 . निम्नलिखित कुछ ऐसी Verbs और Adjectives हैं जिनके साथ Preposition के बाद हमेशा Gerund का प्रयोग किया जाता है । Abstain from , aim at assist in , bent on , confident of , debar from , desirous of , desist from , despair of , disqualified from , dissuade ( one ) from , excel in , excuse for , fortunate in hinder ( one ) from , hopeful of , insist on , intend on , meditate on , negligent in , passion for , perceive in , persist in , prevent from , prohibit ( one ) from , proud of , refrain from , repent of , succeed in , successful in , think of , afraid of , good at , fond of , glad about , disappointed about / at , sorry about / for , angry about / at , clever at , per cent in , famous for , keen on , fed up with , happy about / at , pride in , bad at , crazy about , tired of , worried about , excited about , interested in , sickof , etc .

जैसे -
( a ) I am worried about making mistakes .
( b ) Ram is famous for singing songs .
( c ) I felt tired of travelling such a long distance .
( d ) He tried to avoid answering my question .

5 . About , after , at , before , for , from , in , on और to आदि Prepositions के बाद यदि Main Verb का प्रयोग हो , तो वे हमेशा ing लेती हैं ;

जैसे -
( a ) All his friends are addicted to drinking.
( b ) You prevented me from doing it .
( c ) Itake delight in working hard .
( d ) He was fined for being late .
( e ) He is good at singing songs .

6 . कुछ noun / pronoun के बाद gerund का प्रयोग हो , तो हमेशा उस noun / pronoun के possessive case का प्रयोग करें ;

जैसे -
( a ) She does not like my going to her house .
( b ) I know Ram's visiting her frequently .

7 . निम्नलिखित expressions ( अभिव्यक्तियों ) के बाद भी Gerunds का प्रयोग होता है - be no good , be no use , be worth , can't bear , can ' t help , can ' t stand , give up , go on , it is no good , it is no use , look forward to , would you mind , carry on , keep , keep on , put off etc .

जैसे -
( a ) Ram has given up smoking .
( b ) Do not keep interrupting me while I am speaking .
( c ) Would you mind closing the door ?

8 . दो या दो से अधिक वाक्यों को मिलाने ( Combining Sentences ) में Gerund का प्रयोग होता है ;

जैसे -
( a ) He finished his work . He shut the door .
After finishing his work he shut the door .
( b ) Ram wrote a letter . He called a servant .
After writing a letter Ram called a servant .

9 . Gerund का प्रयोग having + verb III के रूप में ;

जैसे -
( a ) She will never admit having broken the glass .

10 . Gerund और to - infinitive का पारस्परिक परिवर्तन किया जा सकता है :

Gerund To - infinitive
1 . I love hearing this song . 1 . Ilove to hear this song .
2 . Teach me swimming . 2 . Teach me to swim .
3 . They began repairing cars . 3 . They began to repair cars .
4 . I continued talking . 4 . I continued to talk .
5 . Gerund का प्रयोग सामान्य रूप 5 . to - infinitive का प्रयोग विशेष अवसर
( generality ) का बोध कराता है ; जैसे - He prefers going by bus . ( specific occasion ) का बोध कराता है जैसे - He would prefer to go to Delhi by bus .

इस प्रकार gerund और to - infinitive का एक के स्थान पर दूसरे का प्रयोग बिना अर्थ बदले किया जा सकता है ।

11 . Bother , continue . intend और start आदि Verbs के बाद Gerund और to - infinitives का प्रयोग बगैर अर्थ प्रभावित किए हो सकता है ।

जैसे -
( a ) It has started raining . It has started to rain .
( b ) Ram intends buying a house . Ram intends to buy a house .
( c ) Do not bother locking the door . Do not bother to lock the door .

12 . Begin , remember , forget , like और stop आदि कुछ ऐसी verbs हैं जिनके बाद to - infinitives तथा Gerund के प्रयोग से वाक्य के भाव में अंतर आता है ;

जैसे -
( a ) I will remember to post the letter . चिट्ठी पोस्ट करनी है और इसे मैं याद रखूगा ।
( b ) I will remember posting the letter . चिट्ठी पोस्ट की गई और इसे मैं याद रखेंगा ।
( c ) He stopped to smoke . वह सिगरेट पीने के लिए रुका ।
( d ) He stopped smoking . उसने सिगरेट पीना बंद कर दिया ।

‘GERUND’ AND ‘PRESENT PARTICIPLE’

Gerunds और Present Participle दोनों ही Verb की First Form के साथ ing रखते हैं , इसलिए देखने में दोनों एक जैसे लगते हैं , लेकिन इनकी कार्यशैली में अंतर है । Gerund तो Verb के साथ - साथ Noun का काम करती है जबकि Present Participle , Verb के साथ - साथ Adjective का काम करता है ;

जैसे -
( a ) Walking is a good exercise . ( Walking - Gerund )
( b ) I saw Ram walking along the road . ( Walking - Present Participle )

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