Modals और उनके प्रयोग

Modals और उनके प्रयोग

Modals और उनके प्रयोग

Can का प्रयोग

1. वर्तमान योग्यता या क्षमता के लिए [ be able to , know how to ]

➣ I can solve any question of this exercise .
➣ She can lift 100 Kg . weight at a time .
➣ He can repair this watch .

2. वर्तमान आज्ञा कम औपचारिक या अनौपचारिक [ be allowed to , be permitted to ] : :

➣ Can I use your pen , dear friend ?
➣ Can you guide me , brother ?

3. वर्तमान व्यावहारिक या सामान्य संभावना के लिए

➣ Anybody can make mistake .
➣ We can learn by mistakes .
➣ Can it be a murder ?

4. घबराहट या बेचैनी को प्रश्नवाचक वाक्य द्वारा प्रकट करना

➣ What can he mean ? ( puzzlement )
➣ Where can I study ? ( impatience )

5. संभावना वाले Conditional वाक्यों में

➣ If you request , he can help you .
➣ If she tries , she can achieve it .

6. भूतकाल के कार्यों के अनुमान हेतु Can + Perfect infinitive ( have + V-III )

➣ He went early so he can have caught the bus .

Can't : can के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ I can't do it . ( inability )
➣ I can't lift it . ( incapacity )
➣ You can't use it. ( not allowed ) or ( prohibition )
➣ can't we make mistake ? ' ( possibility )
➣ She can't be my sister . ( Negative deduction / assumption )
➣ He went late so he can't have caught the bus . ( Negative Past deduction / assumption )

Could का प्रयोग

1 . भूतकाल की योग्यता या क्षमता [ be able to , knew how to ]

➣ I could leam fast when I was young .
➣ She could swim when she was at school .
➣ He could type fast when he was in the job .

2 . वर्तमान या भविष्य की आज्ञा

➣ Could I use it now ?
➣ Could I use it tomorrow ?
➣ Could I smoke in here ?

3 . वर्तमान संभावना ( व्यावहारिक या वास्तविक )

➣ The road could be blocked .
➣ We could attend the meeting .

4. आकस्मिक संभावना या योग्यता - अवास्तविक स्थिति में

➣ If I had more money , I could buy a bunglow .
➣ If she won a lottery , she could live leisurely .

5 . विनम्र प्रार्थना

➣ Could you help me , please ?

6 . घबराहट या बेचैनी — वर्तमान में

➣ What could I do about it ? ( Puzzlement )
➣ What could this result in ? ( Impatience )

7 . सामान्य आज्ञा भूतकाल की

➣ They could play more on Sundays those days .

8 . संभावना — यदा - कदा

➣ He could be very rough .
➣ The sea could be stormy in summer .

9 . भूतकाल का अपूर्ण कार्य Could + Perfect infinitive expresses

➣ He could have helped her . ( but he didn't help her )

Couldn't : could के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ I couldn't learn fast when I was young . ( Inability )
➣ He couldn't type fast when he was in job . ( Incapacity )
➣ We couldn't attend the meeting . ( no possibility )
➣ They couldn't play more even on Sundays those days . ( no permission )

May का प्रयोग

1 . औपचारिक आज्ञा

➣ May I come in , Sir ?
➣ You may come in .

2 . संभावना ( अधिकांशत : तथ्याधारित )

➣ The clouds are dark so it may rain .
➣ She may obtain good marks as she is working hard .

3 . इच्छा / आशीर्वाद

➣ May you live long !
➣ May God bless you !

4 . भूतकाल के अनुमान May + Perfect infinitive

➣ She went late so she may have missed the train .

5 . संभावना वाले Conditional वाक्यों में

➣ If you try , you may reach the goal .

6 . अप्रभावी परामर्श

➣ You may go as well , if you like .

Mayn't : may के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ It may not rain tonight . ( no possibility )
➣ You may not come in . ( no permission )
➣ She went early so she may not have missed the train . ( Negative past deduction ) .

Might का प्रयोग

1 . क्षीण संभावना

➣ The last bus has gone so he might come now .
➣ There are very few clouds so it might rain .

2 . व्यावहारिक या वास्तविक संभावना

➣ What you say might be true .
➣ The road might be blocked for the VIP .

3 . आज्ञा के लिए

➣ Might I smoke in here ?
➣ Might I ask a question ?

4 . भूतकाल के अनुमान के लिए might + Perfect Infinitive

➣ She might have missed the train though she went early . ( She did not miss the train but there was possibility )

5 . आकस्मिक प्रार्थना (casual request)

➣ You might post these for me .

6 . निन्दात्मक प्रार्थना (reproachable request)

➣ You might help me . ( You should have helped me but you didn ' t help . )

7 . झुंझलाहट के लिए

➣ He might pay us . ( He should have paid but he didn ' t pay . )

8 . अप्रभावी परामर्श (unemphatic advice)

➣ You have got failed many times even if you like you may try once more .

Mightn't : might के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ The road might not be blocked . ( no possibility )
➣ She might not have missed the train . ( negative past deduction )

Shall का प्रयोग

1 . वादा , कामना , दृढ निश्चय , इरादा , हठ आदि के लिए

➣ You shall bring a watch for me . ( promise )
➣ He shall buy a car . ( willingness )
➣ She shall doit . ( determination )
➣ They shall sell this house . ( intention )
➣ He shall switch on the radio at full volume when everyone else wants to sleep . ( obstinate insistence )

2 . कानूनी , अर्द्ध - कानूनी या वाणिज्यिक क्षेत्रों में

➣ Every citizen shall have right to live . ( legal )
➣ The govt . executive directed that the company shall pay the loss . ( quasi - legal )
➣ Every customer shall buy the products at his / her on risk . ( commercial )

3 . परामर्श या प्रार्थना

➣ Shall we sit here for some time ?

4 . इच्छा जानने के लिए

➣ Shall I bring the files at your house ?

Shan't : shall के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ Promise , you shall not help him .
➣ They shall not sell this house . ( no intention )
➣ He shall not buy a car . ( no willingness )

Will का प्रयोग

1 . वादा , इच्छा , इरादा , दृढ़ निश्चय , हठ आदि के लिए

➣ I will help you . ( promise )
➣ I will buy a car . ( willingness )
➣ We will build a house . ( intention )
➣ We will work hard . ( determination )
➣ Whatever you say , I will do it . ( obstinate insistence )

2 . भविष्यवाणी के लिए

➣ India will be a world super power by 2025 .

3 . आमंत्रण या विनम्र निवेदन

➣ Will you take a cup of tea , please ?
➣ Will you help me , please ?

4 . सहमति के लिए Conditional Clause में

➣ If you will forgive me , I promise to be good .
➣ We shall be very happy , if you will come to tea .

5 . नियोजन व व्यवस्थाओं के लिए

➣ The stores will stay open till 10 pm .

6 . विनम्र निर्देश या आदेश

➣ You will reach office tomorrow sharp at 10 a.m.

7 . भावी अनुमान

➣ They will have much amusement tomorrow in the party .

8 . भूतकाल का अनुमान

➣ She will have heard the news .

Won't : will के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ Won't you have a cup of tea ? ( Invitation )
➣ She won't have heard the news . ( negative deduction )

Should का प्रयोग

1 . बाध्यता व तर्कसंगत आवश्यकता

➣ She should do as they say .
➣ She should be home by now .

2 . परामर्श

➣ You should work hard .
➣ The rich should help the poor .

3 . बहुत कम संभावित Condition बताने हेतु

➣ Should it rain today , the evening will be pleasant .
➣ Should you win a lottery , would you help me ?

4 . इच्छा प्रकट करने हेतु

➣ I did not wish that you should leave me alone .
➣ I did not like that my son should join the army .

5 . आशा प्रकट करने हेतु

➣ They should be here any moment now .

6 . उद्देश्य प्रकट करने हेतु

➣ Be careful lest you should catch infection .
➣ They killed the prisoners lest they should escape .

7 . Should + perfect infinitive to show past deduction

➣ He should have caught the bus since he started early .

Shouldn’t : Should के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ You should not help him .( Negative advice )
➣ He shouldn't have caught the bus . ( Negative deduction )

Would का प्रयोग

1. भूतकालिक आदतें

➣ We would sit on the hilltop in childhood .
➣ I would love film music in young age.

2 . विनम्र प्रार्थना ( किन्तु could से कम विनम्र )

➣ Would you please convey my message ?
➣ Would you kindly close the door ?

3 . कभी - कभी दृढ़ निश्चय प्रकट करने हेतु ( किन्तु will / shall से कम दृढ़ निश्चय )

➣ He would do it whether you like it or not .

4. इच्छा प्रकटीकरण हेतु

➣ Would that I were a bird !

5. To express a ‘hopeless wish’ with ‘if only’

➣ If only he would come !

6 . अनिश्चय बताने हेतु

➣ He would go if he were asked .
➣ She would agree if she were approached .

7 . इच्छा प्रकट करने के लिए

➣ Would you excuse me ?

8 . दबाव डालने हेतु (Insistence )

➣ It's your fault ; you would pay the penalty .

9 . संभावना

➣ That would be his mother .

10 . इच्छाशक्ति की प्रधानता हेतु

➣ I think he would rather have tea .

11. कम संभव Conditional Sentences में

➣ If he did stop him , he would smoke too much .

12 .असंभव Conditional वाक्यों में

➣ Had he worked hard , he would have passed .

Wouldn't : would के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ We would not sit on the hilltops in childhood .( no past habit )
➣ It's not your fault , you wouldn't pay penalty .( negative insistence )
➣ That wouldn't be his mother . ( no probability )

Must का प्रयोग

1 . अनिवार्यता , बाध्यता आदि प्रकट करने हेतु

➣ You must have a licence to drive a vehicle .
➣ Every employee must follow rules .

2 . तर्काधारित अनिवार्यता या अत्यधिक संभावना

➣ The lights are on , somebody must be in the room .

3 . मजबूत परामर्श

➣ You are seriously ill so you must go to a hospital .
➣ She must work hard to be in the merit list .

4 . भूतकालिक अनुमान Past deductions with must + perfect infinitive

➣ You must have got a job by that time .
➣ She went early so she must have caught the bus .

Mustn't or musn't

1 . निषेध

➣ You musn't park your vehicle here .
➣ We mustn't change the lane .

2. must के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ Lights are off so she mustn't be in the room . ( negative probability )
➣ She went late so she mustn't have caught the bus . ( negative past deduction )

Ought to का प्रयोग

1 . नैतिक कर्तव्य

➣ You ought to serve your parents .
➣ Everyone ought to obey the olders .

2 . परामर्श

➣ You ought to take some exercise .

3 . तर्काधारित अनिवार्यता या आशा

➣ They ought to be here by now .
➣ They ought to start at once .

4 . भूतकालिक अनुमान Past deduction with ought to + perfect infinitive

➣ She ought to have caught the bus .

5 . भूतकालिक अपूर्ण कार्य

➣ She ought to have conveyed it . ( but she didn't )

Oughtn't to : ought to के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ You oughtn't to eat too many breads . ( Advice in negative )
➣ She oughtn't have missed the train since she started early . ( Negative deduction )

Semi - Modals

Needn't का प्रयोग

1 . बाध्यता का अभाव या अनिवार्यता नहीं

➣ You needn't wear a sweater as the days are warm .
➣ You needn't travel by air .

2 . भूतकालिक कार्य जिसमें अनिवार्यता नहीं थी Past Action neither necessary nor obligatory - with needn't perfect infinitive

➣ You needn't have done it . ( but you did it )

Daren't का प्रयोग

1. साहस का अभाव

➣ He daren't touch me .
➣ The USA daren't attack China .

Used to का प्रयोग

1 . Past habits : भूतकालिक आदतें

➣ I used to exercise daily in young age .
➣ She used to swim one hour daily in childhood .

2 . आदी होना

➣ We are now used to work without electricity .
➣ I am now used to exercise daily .

Usedn't to : used to के प्रयोगों का नकारात्मक रूप

➣ I usedn't to exercise daily in young age .

➣ She usedn't to swim daily one hour in childhood .

Modals का प्रयोग करते समय कुछ नियमों का ध्यान रखें

1 . Modals का main verb के रूप में प्रयोग कभी नहीं किया जा सकता ; जैसे -

( a ) I will you my notes . (✖)
       I will lend you my notes . (✔)

( b ) Work hard lest you should .(✖)
       Work hard lest you should fail . (✔)

2 . Modal का प्रयोग अकेले नहीं होता बल्कि सदैव main verb के साथ होता है । ( Modals do not convey a meaning on their own . )

3 . Modals कभी भी subject के number , gender या person के अनुसार नहीं बदलती हैं । ( Modals do not change form with persons , gender and number . )

( a ) I can climb up a tree .
( b ) He can climb up a tree .
( c ) They can climb up a tree .
( d ) She can climb up a tree .

4 . Question tags में modals स्वतंत्र रहती हैं ; जैसे -

( a ) You should never tell a lie . should you ?
( b ) Mary can't swim , can she ?

5 . Modals के बाद हमेशा verb की first form का प्रयोग होता है । ( A modal always takes the root form of the verb . )

( a ) I can drive a car .
( b ) I could help you last year .
( c ) May you live long !
( d ) He might stand first .

6 . दो modal verbs का एक साथ प्रयोग नहीं होता है ; जैसे -

➣ He should must go now .(✖)
यहाँ should must का प्रयोग एक साथ गलत है । लेकिन दो modal verbs का प्रयोग एक conjunction से जोड़कर किया जा सकता है ; जैसे -
➣ He should and must go now . (✔)

7 . जब primary auxiliary तथा एक modal auxiliary का प्रयोग and से जोड़कर किया जाए तथा उनके लिए एक ही main verb का प्रयोग हो , तो आवश्यकतानुसार दोनों auxiliaries के लिए main verb के रूप को स्पष्ट कर देना चाहिए ; जैसे -

➣ He has done and will do a lot of work .(✔)
➣ Ram has and will work hard .(✖)
इस वाक्य में has के बाद worked का प्रयोग नहीं किया गया है । अतः इसका शुद्ध रूप इस प्रकार से होगा -
Ram has worked and will work hard .

8 . जब दो subjects भिन्न - भिन्न numbers के हों तथा उनके साथ दो helping verbs ‘to be’ और ‘have’ आदि का प्रयोग हो , तो दोनों subjects के लिए helping verbs का प्रयोग किया जाता है ; जैसे -

➣ Three were killed and one was injured .(✔)
➣ Two were intelligent but one dull .(✖)
इस वाक्य में one के बाद was का प्रयोग नहीं किया गया है । अत : इसका शुद्ध रूप इस प्रकार से होगा -
➣ Two were intelligent but one was dull .

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